Providing a Lino server¶
As a server provider you are responsible for installing and maintaining a Lino server, i.e. a virtual or physical machine used to run one or several Lino sites. A Lino server runs a Linux operating system and must be connected to a network.
The server provider holds root access to the server and creates user accounts with sudo rights for each site maintainer. He configures secure remote shell access (SSH) to that machine for each site maintainer. He provides support to the site maintainers. See Creating a user account.
The server provider is not responsible for installing and maintaining specific system packages, Lino source code and configuration, or for giving end-user support to the users of any Lino site hosted on this site.
The server provider may optionally be responsible for providing backup service for the server as a whole.
Where to get a virtual server¶
If you don’t have your own in-house hardware or dedicated server, you can get a Virtual Private Server from many providers. Here is a list of VPS providers we have tested:
System requirements for a Lino site¶
We recommend a stable Debian as operating system. Currently this means Debian 10 “Buster”.
One CPU should be enough for a site with a few dozens of users.
You need at least 10 GB of disk space. You can see how much disk space you have by saying:
$ df -h
We recommend at least 2GB of RAM (because we didn’t yet test production sites with less). How to see how much memory you have:
$ free -h
Preparing a new server¶
Before creating system users, the root user should check the following.
/etc/ssh/sshd_config make sure that
is set to
no. We require site maintainers to have a
~/.ssh/authorized_keys file. They will need their password only for
running sudo commands.
All maintainers must have a umask 002 or 007 (not 022 or 077 as is the default value).
Edit the file
/etc/bash.bashrc (site-wide for all users):
# nano /etc/bash.bashrc
And add the following line at the end:
umask command is used to mask (disable) certain file permissions from
any new file created by a given user. See The umask command for more detailed
# apt-get update && apt-get upgrade
The system should have installed the sudo package:
# apt-get install sudo
Creating a user account¶
As a root user you will create a user account for every site maintainer.
In the following examples we assume that the user account to create is
Agree upon a temporary password with Joe (who can later change their password
passwd), and then type:
# adduser joe
Site maintainers must be members of the sudo and www-data groups:
# adduser joe sudo # adduser joe www-data
Creating the user’s
~/.ssh/authorized_keys file with the maintainer’s
public ssh key:
# su - joe $ mkdir .ssh && chmod 700 .ssh $ touch .ssh/authorized_keys && chmod 600 .ssh/authorized_keys $ cat >> .ssh/authorized_keys
Paste the maintainer’s public key to the terminal. Press ENTER to add at least one newline. Press Ctrl+D to say you’re finished with pasting content.
useradd is a native binary compiled with the system, while adduser is a perl script that uses useradd in back-end.
ssh requires that the
.sshdirectory and its content should have permissions set so that only the owner can read, write, or open them.
How to generate a SSH key pair¶
As a site maintainer you must have generated public and private ssh keys using the command ssh-keygen -t rsa.
How to change the hostname¶
Every server has a “hostname”, a relatively short “nickname” to designate it. The hostname also appears in the prompt (unless somebody customized their prompt). The hostname is not the same as the FQDN.
How to change the hostname of a Lino server:
$ sudo hostnamectl set-hostname newname
Also edit your
If you use mailutils, you must also check
If that file doesn’t exist, try:
$ mail --show-config-options | grep SYSCONFDIR SYSCONFDIR=/etc - System configuration directory
Which means that actually the config files are in
/etc/mail. And one of
/etc/mail/local-host-names contains my default