Providing a Lino server¶
You do this for a site operator, who is usually your customer or your employer. The site operator designates one or several site maintainers who will install and maintain one or several Lino sites on that machine.
You hold root access to the server and create user accounts with
for each site maintainer. You configure secure remote shell access (SSH)
of the server provide support to the site maintainers.
You are responsible for providing backup service, monitoring and general availability of the server as a whole.
If you don’t have your own in-house hardware or dedicated server, you can get a Virtual Private Server from many providers. Here is a list of VPS providers we have tested:
We recommend a stable Debian as operating system. Currently this means Debian 10 “Buster”.
One CPU should be enough for a site with a few dozens of users.
You need at least 10 GB of disk space. You can see how much disk space you have by saying:
$ df -h
We recommend at least 2GB of RAM (because we didn’t yet test production sites with less). How to see how much memory you have:
$ free -h
In case you need help, a good thing is to report some diagnostic information about your environment:
$ cat /etc/debian_version
Before creating system users, the root user should check the following.
/etc/ssh/sshd_config make sure that
is set to
no. We require site maintainers to have a
~/.ssh/authorized_keys file. They will need their password only for
running sudo commands.
# apt-get update && apt-get upgrade
The system should have installed the sudo package:
# apt-get install sudo
As a root user you will create a user account for every site maintainer.
In the following examples we assume that the user account to create is
Agree upon a temporary password with Joe (who can later change their password
passwd), and then type:
# adduser joe
Site maintainers must be members of the sudo and www-data groups:
# adduser joe sudo
# adduser joe www-data
Creating the user’s
~/.ssh/authorized_keys file with the maintainer’s
public ssh key:
# su - joe
$ mkdir .ssh && chmod 700 .ssh
$ touch .ssh/authorized_keys && chmod 600 .ssh/authorized_keys
$ cat >> .ssh/authorized_keys
Paste the maintainer’s public key to the terminal. Press ENTER to add at least one newline. Press Ctrl+D to say you’re finished with pasting content.
useradd is a native binary compiled with the system, while adduser is a perl script that uses useradd in back-end.
ssh requires that the
.sshdirectory and its content should have permissions set so that only the owner can read, write, or open them.
As a site maintainer you must have generated public and private ssh keys using the command ssh-keygen -t rsa.
You can copy the user accounts of an existing Lino server to a newly created server by saying something like:
# export SRCemail@example.com
# scp $SRC:/home/user1/.ssh /home/user1/
# scp $SRC:/etc/shadow /etc/shadow
Every server has a “hostname”, a relatively short “nickname” to designate it. The hostname also appears in the prompt (unless somebody customized their prompt). The hostname is not the same as the FQDN.
How to change the hostname of a Lino server:
$ sudo hostnamectl set-hostname newname
Also edit your
If you use mailutils, you must also check
If that file doesn’t exist, try:
$ mail --show-config-options | grep SYSCONFDIR
SYSCONFDIR=/etc - System configuration directory
Which means that actually the config files are in
/etc/mail. And one of
/etc/mail/local-host-names contains my default